Friday, 8 March 2013

Some definitions
figure of speech: use of words in a different way from their usual meaning
idiom:words put together differently from the dictionary definition of individual words
figurative language: lots of metaphors, similes, hyperbole (as opposed to literal language)
literal: actually happens
figurative: feels like it happens
simile: comparison (+ 'like' or 'as') between things with something in common
metaphor: description of something as the same as something else
alliteration: repetition of initial sounds
onomatopoeia: imitates the sounds represented
hyperbole: exaggeration
euphemism: substitute inoffensive term for something explicit
assonance: repetition of similar vowel sounds
resonance: prolonged vibrating sound
repetition: reinforcement of ideas and dramatic momnts
personification: giving an object a personality or human qualities
anaphora: repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive sentences
understatement: to deliberately make less serious or important
irony: use of words to convey opposite of literal meaning
oxymoron:contradictory or incongruous words used side by side
pun: play on words of different or similar sense or sound
allegory: symbolic use of language, representing abstract ideas through concrete forms
analogy: transfer of information or meaning from oe subject to another
rhetoric:undue exaggeration, used to sway an audience, to persuade
rhetorical question: not really a question, no answer expected
satire: exaggerate in order to ridicule
parody: writing in another's style with intention of ridicule
facetiousness: inappropriate humour
Examples of some of the above:
onomatopeia: mumble, buzz, quack quack
resonance: murmur of inumerable humming insects
hyperbole: nearly died laughing
idiom: fishing for compliments
euphemism: passed away
analogy: own goal, shoot self in foot
anaphora: I have a dream, Of all the gin joints
oxymoron: Spanish punctuality
trope: Number 10

Other linguistic terms
collocation: words normally found together
colligation: grammatical structures usually found together
syntax: rules governing the patterns of language
grammar: rules governing the use of language

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